Lecturing Styles to Improve Students’ Learning Outcome


1. Formal Authority

The teaching style according to Felder & Soloman (1992) consists of 4 models, namely: A instructor-centered approach where the instructor feels responsible for providing and controlling the flow of content  which the student is to receive and assimilate. The formal authority figure does not concern himself with creating a relationship  with the student nor is it important if the students build relationships with each other;


2. Demonstrator or Personal Model

A instructor-centered approach where the instructor demonstrates and models what is expected (skills and processes) and then acts as a coach or guide to assist the students in applying the knowledge. This style encourages student participation and utilizes various learning styles; 


3. Facilitator

A student centered approach where the instructor facilitates and focuses on activities. Responsibility is placed on the students to take initiative to achieve results for the various tasks. Students who are independent, active, collaborative learners learners thrive in this environment. Instructors typically design group activities which necessitate active learning, student-to-student collaboration and problem solving; 


4. Delegator

A student-centered approach whereby the instructor delegates and places much control and responsibility for learning on individuals or groups of students. This type of instructor will often require students to design and implement a complex learning project and will act solely in a consultative role. Students are often asked to work independently or in groups and must be able to effectively work in group situations and manage various interpersonal roles.


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